declares unrestricted submarine warfare.
and Indian forces capture Baghdad.
Nicholas II of Russia abdicates, and a provisional government
is set up following the outbreak of a Revolution during
the prior week.
attack Gaza, Palestine, but are driven back.
United States of America declares war on Germany.
of Arras; Canadians take Vimy Ridge. British casualties:
150,000, German: 100,000.
Battle of the Aisne. French launch a great offensive,
but following a mutiny, 100,000 French soldiers are court-martialled,
and many are shot.
of Messines. The British finally take the Messines Ridge
of the Ypres Salient that the Germans dominated from early
in the war.
Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele). Canadians take the village
of Passchendaele. British casualties: more than 300,000,
German: less than 200,000.
troops attack Ramadi.
attack Beersheeba, Gaza, Junction Station, and Jerusalem.
the Bolsheviks now in power in Russia, Lenin reads his
Decree on Peace to the Soviet Congress. Russian armies
collapse on the Eastern Front, as a civil war breaks out
of Cambrai. British make a weak advance but eventually
lose ground. British casualties: 1500, German prisoners:
German aircraft bomb London, Dover, Ramsgate, Sheerness,
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ends the war for Russia.